Two-stroke racing has been living in a four-stroke world, and the death blow to the smokers in GP racing has already been dealt by the GP Racing Commission. With 2012 set to see Moto3 replace 125GP as MotoGP’s introductory class, the FIM has released the full technical specifications of the up-coming, 2500cc, single-cylinder, four-stroke racing class. Designed not only to bring GP racing into the 21st century, Moto3 also aims to end the Aprilia domination that’s currently taking place in the class’s two-stroke predecessor. With companies like Honda and KTM building complete Moto3 machines, and engineering firms like Kalex working on custom chassis for the prototype 250cc engines, there certainly looks to be a bit of diversity coming to the introductory GP series.
Another issue plaguing 125GP, and GP racing as a whole, is the rising costs of competing in the sport, as evidenced by the diminishing grid size in MotoGP. With Moto2 boasting a healthy 40 bike grid, Dorna and IRTA believe they have found the secret recipe to making prototype racing work, and have applied that methodology to the new Moto3 class. Unsurprisingly then, the vast majority of Moto3′s technical regulations concern keeping costs down, especially when it comes to the series’ claiming-rule style engine & parts restrictions. It’s actually interesting to read the level of detail the GP Commission has gone through in order to head-off attempts to circumnavigate the spirit of the cheaper four-stroke series, though we might point out that water always finds its level. Check out the full Moto3 technical regulations after the jump.
FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix
Decision of the Grand Prix Commission
The Grand Prix Commission, composed of Messrs. Carmelo Ezpeleta (Dorna, Chairman), Ignacio Verneda (FIM Executive Director, Sport), Hervé Poncharal (IRTA) and Takanao Tsubouchi (MSMA), in the presence of Javier Alonso (Dorna) and M. Paul Butler (Secretary of the meeting), in a meeting held on 02 in Motegi (Japan), unanimously decided the following:
Moto3 Technical Regulations:
|1.1||4-stroke reciprocating piston engines only.|
|1.2||Engine capacity: maximum 250cc.|
|1.3||Single cylinder only.|
|1.4||Maximum bore size: 81mm. Oval pistons are not permitted (refer to Art. 2.3.1 of the FIM Grand Prix Regulations).|
|1.5||Engines must be normally aspirated. No turbo-charging, no super-charging.|
|1.6||Crankshaft speed limited to maximum: 14,000 rpm.*|
|1.7||Maximum of 1 ignition driver.*|
|1.8||Pneumatic and/or hydraulic valve systems are not permitted.|
|1.9||Valve timing system drive must be by one chain. An intermediate drive gear which rotates on only one axle or rotation centre is allowed in the system (refer to ANNEX1 for some examples of permitted systems).|
|1.10||Variable valve timing and/or variable valve lift systems are not permitted.|
|1.11||The engine is defined as the complete engine including intake system (throttle body, injectors), and one complete transmission.|
|1.12||The maximum price of the engine must not exceed 12,000 Euros. No optional parts or service contracts may be used to circumvent this price limit.|
|1.13||Each engine manufacturer must undertake to supply sufficient engines and spare parts to supply 15 riders per season, if requested, and is responsible that the same amount of tuning kits (if any, see 1.12) are available, regardless where the tuning kit comes from.|
|1.14||Each engine manufacturer must submit a price and lead-time list of all the parts of the engine as defined in 1.11 and 1.12 (which are considered the “stock” parts) for the season for approval by the Organiser and may not charge more than these published prices. Approval is based on the prices and lead-times being in line with current market norms for these parts and technologies.|
|1.15||In the event of engine updates or upgraded parts being developed, these must be made available to all customers at the same time, and respecting the price limits described in Art. 1.14.|
|Initial Mapping and Set Up Procedure|
|1.16||The official ECU start-up procedure is to ensure manufacturers will be supplied with the official ECU with an initial map to suit their engine in time for the first official Moto3 tests. The initial map is intended for safe and trouble-free engine function, and not maximum performance. Performance mapping is the responsibility of the engine manufacturer or the Team.|
For an engine to be eligible for the Moto3 class, one of the following two options for the ECU start-up procedure must be followed:
1. Manufacturers will be guaranteed supply of the official ECU with initial maps to suit their engine in time for the first official Moto3 tests provided that, by October 15th of the preceeding year:
|2. Inlet, Fuel System & Lubricant|
|2.1||Variable-length inlet tract systems are not permitted.|
|2.2||Only one throttle control valve is permitted to control the power demand by the rider, which must be controlled exclusively by mechanical means (eg. cable) operated by the rider only. No other powered moving devices (except injectors and the idle control air bypass) are permitted in the inlet tract before the engine intake valve. No interruption of the mechanical connection between the rider’s input and the throttle is allowed.|
Idle speed (including engine braking) adjustment by means of an air bypass system, controlled by the ECU is allowed (see also 5.4).* The maximum size of such air bypass is 12mm equivalent diameter, control systems may include a butterfly-type control valve.
|2.3||Fuel injectors must be located upstream of the engine intake valves.|
|2.4||Maximum of 2 fuel injectors and 2 independent fuel injector drivers.*|
|2.5||Relative fuel pressure must not exceed 5.0 bar.|
|2.6||Other than engine sump breather gases, only air or air/fuel mixture is permitted in the inlet tract and combustion chamber.|
|2.7||Only fuel from the official supplier may be used, which must comply with the FIM “Moto3” specification (TBA).|
|2.8||Only engine lubricating oil from the official supplier may be used (specifications TBA).|
|3. Exhaust system|
|3.1||Variable length exhaust systems are not permitted.|
|3.2||No moving parts (e.g. valves, baffles) are allowed in the exhaust system.|
|3.3||Noise tests will be according to Article 2.14 of the FIM Grand Prix Regulations. Test rpm: 5,500. Maximum permitted noise level: 115 dB/A.|
|4.1||A maximum of 6 gearbox speeds is permitted.|
|4.2||A maximum of 2 possible gear ratios for each gearbox speed, and 2 possible ratios for the primary drive gear is permitted. Teams will be required to declare the two gearbox ratios chosen for each gear at the beginning of the season, and only these ratios may be used during the entire season.|
The alternate gearbox ratios and primary gears must have the same list price and lead-times as the original supplied gearbox (see Art. 1.11 to 1.15).
|4.3||Gearbox systems must be of the conventional type. That is: constant-mesh with engagement dogs as an integral part of the gear, actuated by shift forks and shift cam or drum, with only one set of gears engaging at one time. So-called “seamless shift” transmissions (also known as Automated Manual Transmission, Instantaneous Gearchange System) are not permitted.|
|4.4||Electro-mechanical or electro-hydraulic clutch actuating systems are not permitted.|
|5. Ignition, Electronics & Data-Logging|
|5.1||a) Only the ignition/fuel injection control units (ECU) approved by the series Organiser are allowed. This ECU must remain unmodified in hardware and software, as delivered by the Organiser.|
b) During Moto3 race events only the official “Race” version of ECU software supplied by the ECU manufacturer may be used to write to (flash) the ECU. The only permitted changes are the setting (tuning) options included in this software.
c) The Technical Director may require the team to change the ECU on any machine for another standard one at any time.
|5.2||This official ECU will include an engine rpm limiter.|
|5.3||This official ECU will include an inboard data logger, and no other additional data loggers may be used.|
The datalogger download connector must be of the standard type as detailed in Annex 5 (see Compulsory engine management features).
Data analysis software is not controlled.
|5.4||Recommended engine management and electronics features:|
- dashboard: Dell’Orto part # 16001, see ANNEX 4,
- idle speed control stepper motor (ref. 2.2): Dell’Orto part # 17258, see ANNEX 4,
- UEGO (O2) sensor: Bosch LSU 4.9,
- Knock sensor: Bosch or NGK piezo-ceramic
- two timing options:
The above mentioned features are guaranteed to work properly, different choices and the relevant development costs and timings must be agreed separately with the ECU manufacturer.
|5.5||Compulsory engine management features:|
- ignition must be of the inductive type, the maximum ignition coil current must be less than 30A,
- the throttle position sensor voltage output must be 0-5V,
- the crankshaft pickup sensor must be of the inductive type, voltage at 300rpm must be at least 0,8V and maximum voltage must be less than 100V,
- the camshaft pickup sensor, if any (see timing option no. 2 in 5.4), must be of the Hall-effect type, “0” voltage must be less than 0,5V, “1” voltage must be 4,5±0,5V,
- a battery is compulsory; proper engine management function is ensured only when the battery voltage is in the 8÷18V range.
- the datalogger download connector on the harness must be of the Lemo PEN.1F.308.XLM type, connected as detailed in Annex 5.
|* All the parameters identified by this symbol are set/controlled via the above mentioned ECU.|
|Refer to ANNEX 2 & 2A in the appendix for ECU dimensions, connector and pinout.|
|6.1||Chassis must be a prototype, the design and construction of which is free within the constraints of the FIM Grand Prix Technical Regulations.|
|6.2||Minimum total weight of Motorcycle + Rider: 148kg|
|6.3||Brake discs must be made from ferrous materials.|
|6.4||Suspension systems must be of a conventional, mechanical type. Active and semi-active suspension systems and/or electronic control of any aspect of the suspension and ride height is not permitted. Springing must be by means of coil springs made of ferrous materials.|
|6.5||Referring to Article 18.104.22.168 of the FIM Grand Prix Regulations, the lower fairing minimum capacity to retain spilled engine fluids is 2.5 litres for Moto3.|
|7. Wheels & Tyres|
|7.1||The materials permitted for wheel construction are Magnesium and Aluminium alloys.|
|7.2||The only permitted wheel rim sizes are:|
|7.3||The number and specification of tyres allocated to each rider per event will be controlled.|
|7.4||Only tyres from the official supplier may be used.|
|8. Materials & Construction|
|8.1||Construction materials must comply with Article 2.7.10 of the FIM Grand Prix Regulations.|
|8.2||Camshafts, crankshafts, piston pins must be made from ferrous materials. Inserts of a different material are allowed in the crankshaft for the sole purpose of balancing.|
|8.3||Engine crankcases, cylinder blocks and cylinder heads must be made from cast aluminium alloys.|
|8.4||Pistons must be made from an aluminium alloy.|
|8.5||Connecting rods, valves and valve springs must be made from either ferrous or Titanium-based alloys.|
“X-based alloy” or “X materials” means the element X (e.g. Fe, for ferrous or iron-based alloy) must be the most abundant element in the alloy, on a % w/w basis.
|9.1||Number of machines: the team can present only one motorcycle per rider for technical control. Replacement motorcycles may only be used subject to Article 1.15.3 of the FIM Grand Prix Regulations|
|9.2||Number of engines: a maximum of 8 engines per rider may be used during all Grand Prix race events comprising the season. A rebuilt engine will be counted as a new engine (see Art. 9.4).|
|9.3||Teams will be required to register engines at Technical Control on the day before the first practice at each event. Such registered engines will be sealed and seals may not be removed except under supervision of the Technical Director and staff. Only sealed and registered engines may be used on track at Grand Prix race events. An engine presented for Technical Control or used on track without intact security seals will be counted as a new engine.|
|9.4||1) Engine seals: The engines will be sealed by means of wiring and identification tabs and/or other systems, so that major components (including but not limited to: crankshaft and it’s bearings, conrod and it’s bearings, piston, piston rings and piston pin, valves and their springs, camshafts) can not be replaced. Sealing positions must be approved by the Technical Director so that:|
2) All parts that are accessible without removing the security seals may be replaced. Breaking or removing the security seals or wiring without supervision by the Technical Director or staff will be deemed to be “engine rebuilding” and engines with broken, tampered with or missing security seals will be treated as a new engine in the allocation.
|9.5||Apart from the above regulations, all other construction criteria, dimensions and specifications are as per the FIM Grand Prix Regulations.|
Source: FIM; Photo: KTM